Lost Stravinsky piece performed for first time since rediscovery

Electric atmosphere as Valery Gergiev conducts Funeral Song at Maryinsky concert hall in St Petersburg

Igor Stravinskys Funeral Song for orchestra has had to wait almost 108 years for a second performance. But the work has at last made it after the lost materials resurfaced in a St Petersburg Conservatoire house move last year, chiefly thanks to the tireless exertions of one of the Conservatoire professors, Natalya Braginskaya.

After protracted haggling over rights between the Conservatoire, the Stravinsky estate and his publisher, Boosey and Hawkes, a score was finally put together from the recovered orchestral parts. On Friday, Valery Gergiev conducted the first performance since January 1909, in a late-night concert in the Maryinsky concert hall here in St Petersburg.

Stravinsky composed the piece as a memorial to his teacher Nikolay Rimsky-Korsakov, who died in June 1908. Getting it played in the narrow, status-conscious musical world of tsarist Petersburg cost him almost as much emotional effort as it has cost to get it replayed now. His career was in the balance. He was a private Rimsky pupil, not in the Conservatoire swim; relatively untaught, insecure. He had two brilliant orchestral scherzos up his sleeve, but no performances planned. No wonder he was desperate to have his Funeral Song included among the tributes to the great panjandrum of St Petersburg musical life.

The fascination with this missing music has always been the question of how he got from those sparky but rather conventional scherzos to the amazing ballet scores he wrote for Diaghilev hardly any time afterwards: The Firebird, Petrushka, The Rite of Spring. Well now we know or rather, we know that we still dont know.

In a positively electric atmosphere in this superb modern hall just round the corner from the apartment where Stravinsky composed the piece, we heard a twelve-minute orchestral movement of extraordinary emotional power, but curiously few recognisably Stravinskian features: some sinister string scrubbings and wind chords such as we were about to hear again in The Firebird, which followed in the programme; a certain obsession with fragments of melody repeated over and over; a general sureness of effect and touch, in music much slower than anything hed written before.

But there were also directions he never followed up. Above all Wagner, a composer he later pretended to detest, but we already knew that was a lie and this music proves it once and for all. And naturally his teacher Rimsky-Korsakov, whom he had to struggle to shake off later.

But none of this mattered on Friday. The Russian audience, deprived of their greatest composer for so many Soviet years, were rightly thrilled that a substantial piece of his had turned up on their home ground and that they were the first to play it and hear it. The applause as Gergiev held up the score was thunderous, and whatever scholars make of the work in due course, it deserved every minute of it. Stravinsky remembered Funeral Song as one of his best early pieces (though he forgot nearly everything else about it) and he was right. But we still dont know by what miracle he got from those scherzos via this Funeral Song to The Rite of Spring in four short years.

Read more: https://www.theguardian.com/music/2016/dec/03/stravinsky-funeral-song-valery-gergiev-maryinsky-st-petersburg

Dachau concentration camp gate found two years after it was stolen

Police in Bergen, Norway, find iron gate with slogan Arbeit macht frei after tipoff

An iron gate with the slogan Arbeit macht frei (work will set you free) that was stolen from the former Nazi concentration camp in Dachau two years ago has been found in Norway, police say.

Due to an anonymous tipoff, police in Norways Bergen have secured an iron gate with the well-known text, Bavaria state police said on Friday. From the picture transmitted, police believe it is highly likely that this is the iron gate that was stolen from Dachau.

The theft of the 100kg (220lb) gate was reported on 2 November 2014, sparking uproar, with Germanys chancellor, Angela Merkel, calling it appalling.

Read more: https://www.theguardian.com/world/2016/dec/02/dachau-concentration-camp-gate-found-stolen-bergen-norway-arbeit-macht-frei

Stars and stripes? Whatever: six times artists subverted the American flag

From Dread Scotts supreme court showdown to Jasper Johns homemade renditions, artists have been using Old Glory to convey ideas for decades

In a now famous tweet revealing, yet again, his tenuous grasp on the US constitution, Donald Trump suggested that anyone daring to burn a US flag should be stripped of their citizenship. Never mind that the US supreme court ruled on that very act in 1989, deeming it protected free expression under the first amendment (see Dread Scott, below); retro-fitting Old Glory as a symbolic vehicle for the full breadth of interpretation of American identity has been a strategy of artists and activists alike for decades.

What follows are some of the best known and most relevant displays for this badly strained moment for the American psyche.

Dread Scott, What Is the Proper Way to Display a US Flag?, 1988

Photographers
Photographers focus their cameras on the Dread Scott exhibit in March 1989. Photograph: Mark Elias/AP

When Scott showed this piece at the Art Institute of Chicago in 1989, it became a predictable flashpoint for conservative scorn. Its timing was impeccable: Congress, then in the grip of a Republican presidency and majority, had just passed ambiguous-seeming legislation protecting the flag, and Senator Bob Dole invoked it as a way to remove Scotts work from public view. (President George HW Bush, for his part, called it disgraceful.)

The law led to Scott, along with three other protesters, burning the flag on the steps of Congress that same year, followed by a landmark in freedom of expression: the supreme court ruled that the first amendment protected the right of anyone to reinterpret the flag as they chose.

So what was all the fuss about? Scott, an African American then in his early 20s, installed an array of photos culled from media Korean students burning US flags; flag-draped coffins of American soldiers with a suggestion book, of sorts, asking his titular question. While offering their views, the audience would have to use the flag, laid on the floor, as a kind of doormat. At the tail end of the jingoistic Reagan years, Scotts simple, if provocative, question touched a raw nerve in the American psyche one that President-elect Trump seems determined to tear open again.

David Hammons, African American Flag, 1990

Made partly to mark the election of David Dinkins, New York Citys first and only black mayor, in 1990, Hammons reimagination of Old Glory can be seen as cheeky celebration of an undeniable moment of American progress. Its red, black and green stand for the blood and skin of African Americans, and a nod to the verdant roots of black civilization in Africa.

Folded into Hammons career-spanning interest in civil rights and black power movements, you can draw a straight line from then to an increasingly unstable now: Black Lives Matter has prompted the president-elect to muse openly about investigating the movement as a domestic terror organization, and shifts Hammons guardedly hopeful work into a symbol of deepening division of two Americas at the very least, and probably more.

Barbara Kruger, Who is bought and sold? Who is beyond the law? Who is free to choose? Who follows orders? Who salutes longest? Who prays loudest? Who dies first? Who laughs last?, 1991

Kruger, whose wryly blunt text-based work pioneered media appropriation in the 70s and 80s it borrowed, while gleefully satirizing, the language of popular advertising has always been a firebrand of politically engaged art-making, most often with an acid, feminism-inclined wit.

This work takes a foundational symbol of jingoistic Americana and deeply complicates it with questions of power and powerlessness in a polarized nation. Coming out of the Reagan/Bush years, where many believed power given to a cadre of elites was gleefully abused with the blessing of a willfully ignorant public, the questions were apt; as President-elect Trump assembles his cabinet along similar lines, Krugers exploration could hardly be more relevant.

Faith Ringgold, Black Light Series #10: Flag For the Moon: Die Nigger, 1969

Made after many fractious years of the civil rights movement, Ringgolds piece leaves little to the imagination. It would be impossible for me to picture the American flag just as a flag, as if that is the whole story, she said at the time. I need to communicate my relationship with this flag based on my experience as a black woman in America.

The word DIE is clear enough behind the stars, but turn the image to the vertical to clarify: the stripes, emblems of the countrys original 13 colonies, spell out NIGGER in blocky type.

After years of water cannons, church burnings, unprosecuted murders and widespread, often unchecked violence against black people, race relations in America were as raw as they had ever been. Ringgold has revisited the flag as a symbol of oppression; in her 1997 work The Flag Is Bleeding, she recreated the flag with traditional African American quiltwork, sewing an image of a bloodied mother and children into the folksy motif.

Jasper Johns, various (starting in 1954)

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Johns himself never suggested specific intentions for his flag paintings. Photograph: Graeme Robertson for the Guardian

Johns, a painter whose work was foundational in the evolution of conceptualism, painted his first flag in 1954 while he was a 24-year-old army veteran (he was discharged two years earlier). Its faithful, but notable for its obvious materiality, the crisp lines of the fabric rendered rough and homespun by the artists hand. Johns himself never suggested specific intentions for his flag paintings, beyond the evolving conceptual priority on remaking everyday objects in unfamiliar ways.

That said, it has often been suggested that the artists return to symbol at important junctures in American political life (the Joseph McCarthy-led inquiry into anti-American, or communist, activity; the Vietnam war) reflect a nations foundational ideal beaten down by wrongheaded political action. Looking at another flag, made in 1955, its not hard to read that much: its rough and textural, and a grimy white.

Robert Longo, Untitled (the Pequod), 2014

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Artist Robert Longo speaks in front of his artwork. Photograph: Brian Ach/Getty Images for New York Magazine

Longo rose to prominence during the pictures generation of the 1980s with a series of photographs called Men in the Cities, which showed men (and women) snappily clad in business attire and tangled in violent-looking contortions, as though having just been shot.

Longos engagement with the darkness that lies just beneath the slick surface of American idealism projects right up to the present day: a 2014 show at New Yorks Metro Pictures coupled Longos hand-drawn black and white facsimiles of abstract expressionist masterpieces with an imposing sculptural treatment of the American flag: an enormous, rough presence in glistening black, the piece cantilevered awkwardly in the gallery space, listing badly, as though it were a ship going down.

It makes for an elegantly powerful read: a cultural totem for the so-called American century, Longos treatment of those masters deflates ambitions of ever achieving such heights again, while the flag work called Untitled (The Pequod), after Captain Ahabs mercilessly violent, famously doomed whaling ship in Moby-Dick evokes Jasper Johns, minus the ambiguity.

Longo suggests an America going in one direction: down.

Read more: https://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/2016/dec/02/artists-american-flag-jasper-johns-dread-scott

Not as good as P&P: Jane Austen mother’s verdict on Mansfield Park

British Library to put on display Austens notes of what friends, family and correspondents thought of her third novel

Many novelists studiously avoid hearing opinions about their writing, but Jane Austen not only encouraged it, she meticulously compiled them in thorough, sometimes hilarious notes.

Next month the British Library will put on display Austens handwritten notes of what friends, family and correspondents thought of her third novel, Mansfield Park.

A display marking the bicentenary of Austens death will also include three volumes of writings from her teenage years, being brought together for the first time in 40 years.

The Mansfield Park document is fascinating. It shows that Austens mother, Cassandra, thought the novel not as good as Pride & Prejudice and found the heroine, Fanny, insipid. Her sister, also called Cassandra, on the other hand was fond of Fanny and delighted much in Mr Rushworths stupidity.

A lady called Augusta Bramstone is recorded by Austen as thinking Sense & Sensibility and Pride & Prejudice nonsense but [she] expected to like M.P. better, & having finished the 1st vol. flattered herself she had got through the worst.

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Austens notes. Photograph: British Library

The librarys manuscripts curator Sandra Tuppen said Austen was keen to know the opinions of as many people as possible. She wasnt getting published reviews, so this was a way of justifying what she was doing by getting these opinions. I dont think she would have done it if she felt completely confident.

Austen collected dozens of opinions and documented them faithfully, good or bad. Mrs Bramstone, for example, was much pleased, particularly with Fanny. She preferred it to Austens other books, although she imagined that might be her want of taste as she does not understand wit.

A man called Charles did not like it near so well as P&P thought it wanted incident.

Austen, one suspects, would have been a regular self-Googler, but other writers prefer not to know. In a Radio Times interview this week, Julian Barnes revealed he allowed his agent to send him only the three best reviews of the latest novel. And as for online reviews: I never go there. I think a lot of mad people operate there.

Tuppen said what was striking about the Austen notes was that she had phrased them in her own voice: It is creative writing as well as just gathering information.

Mansfield Park was published in 1814 and is sometimes, unfairly, called Austens dullest book. Her notes about it will be displayed next to three volumes from her formative years, two owned by the library and one being lent by the Bodleian in Oxford.

They include a spoof version of English history featuring illustrations of kings and queens by sister Cassandra, with her drawing of Mary Queen of Scots looking suspiciously like young Jane.

The librarys chief executive, Roly Keating, said it was impossible to mark every literary anniversary, but it felt it had to for Austen. This is the British Library we cant let the moment pass without a bit of a celebration.

The objects going on display said much about her humour. and wit, and liveliness, and invention, even at that young age, he said.

The library also formally announced that it was making the archive of PG Wodehouse publicly available for the first time. Containing letters, manuscript drafts and notebooks, it is being loaned by the writers step-grandson Sir Edward Cazalet.

Jane Austen Among Family and Friends is at the British Library 10 January-19 February.

Read more: https://www.theguardian.com/books/2016/dec/01/jane-austen-mothers-verdict-on-mansfield-park-british-library

Bad sex award goes to Italian novelist Erri De Luca’s genital ‘ballet dancers’

The Literary Reviews annual pillory of overheated erotic writing selects a passage from The Day Before Happiness for high-profile ridicule

Italian author, poet and translator Erri De Luca has added another accolade to his glittering career although this may be one he would prefer to have avoided. The winner of the 2013 European Prize for Literature, hailed as writer of the decade by Italian newspaper Corriere della Sera in 2009, has won the 24th annual Literary Review Bad sex award for a passage in his novel The Day Before Happiness.

De Lucas win was announced at a ceremony at the appropriately named In and Out club in London on Wednesday night. The excerpt that swayed the judges involved the Neapolitan orphan protagonist and a mysterious woman he has watched from afar.

He writes: My prick was a plank stuck to her stomach. With a swerve of her hips, she turned me over and I was on top of her. She opened her legs, pulled up her dress and, holding my hips over her, pushed my prick against her opening. I was her plaything, which she moved around. Our sexes were ready, poised in expectation, barely touching each other: ballet dancers hovering en pointe.

De Luca was unable to attend and his publisher at Allen Lane accepted the prize on his behalf.

The book beat stiff competition from a shortlist that included former Blue Peter presenter Janet Ellis for a passage in her bestselling debut The Butchers Hook. It likened sex to hanging out wet washing. Ethan Canin was picked for an episode in A Doubters Almanac where pneumatic lovers enjoy sex like a brisk tennis game or a summer track meet, something performed in daylight between competitors. The cheap mattress bounced.

In Men Like Air,Tom Connolly presented the eye-watering revelation that often she cooked exotic meals and put chillies or spices in her mouth while preparing the food and sucked him while the food cooked and then told him to fuck her while his manhood was burning rock-hard with fire. Leave Meby Gayle Forman, and The Tobacconistby Robert Seethaler were also in contention for this years prize.

Despite the sniggers that greet the annual announcement, the Bad sex award was established in 1993 to raise the tone rather than lower it. The then-editor of the Literary Review, Auberon Waugh, hoped the prize would draw attention to poorly written, perfunctory or redundant passages of sexual description in modern fiction. Since then it has become the one prize literary authors hope to avoid.

Last year, the singer Morrissey won for a passage in his debut novel List of the Lost, in which the protagonists sexually violent rotation was rendered more laughable by the description: Elizas breasts barrel-rolled across Ezras howling mouth and the pained frenzy of his bulbous salutation extenuating his excitement as it whacked and smacked its way into every muscle of Elizas body except for the otherwise central zone.

However, De Luca joins an illustrious group of past recipients. As well as Morrissey, bad sex writing by the likes of Melvyn Bragg, Sebastian Faulks, Norman Mailer and Ben Okri has also received the unwelcome accolade.

Read more: https://www.theguardian.com/books/2016/nov/30/bad-sex-award-italian-novelist-erri-de-luca-dancing-genitals-the-day-before-happiness

Trump’s Islamophobic rhetoric means a public health crisis for Muslims

According to research, Islamophobia is associated with poor psychological outcomes among Muslims and can adversely affect physical health

Sarah Zaffar was stopped at a red light near Huntington Beach, California a predominantly pro-Trump town when a truck pulled up beside her.

Hey, hey! bellowed a white man in a wife-beater and a buzz-cut, trying to get her attention.

Call it womens intuition, Zaffar said, but she refused to acknowledge the aggressive male voice.

Hey! Youre kind of cute. Why dont you give me your number so I can send you the fuck out of this country, he said. Zaffar continued to ignore him.

It was Thursday afternoon, barely two days after the election. Ironically, the 29-year-old psychology graduate student was on her way home from a class on multiculturalism, where they often discussed ways of effectively integrating minorities into the education system. That day Zaffar was wearing a tank top with her hair down nothing about her indicated that she was a Pakistani Muslim American except the brownness of her skin.

Hey, look what I have! the man said. Zaffar finally glanced over and in his hand was some kind of weapon. Silver and shiny. She assumed it was a gun and quickly rolled up her window. As soon as the traffic light turned green, Zaffar sped away. Terrified, she kept checking to make sure she was not being followed until she reached her apartment.

The next day, Zaffar went to the police station to report the incident.

I have never experienced something like this before, Zaffar said. Im still a little shaken up about it. It plants a seed of fear in you.

Throughout his campaign, Donald Trump utilized rhetoric laced with xenophobia to attack minorities while feeding on white Americas growing economic distress. Following the election, Trump reaffirmed his support of policies that unequivocally target Muslims such as denying entry to refugees escaping humanitarian crises from terror-prone regions. The Council on American-Islamic Relations has recorded more than 100 incidents against Muslims since election day. In New York, Governor Andrew Cuomo was forced to create a special police unit to address the spike in hate crimes statewide.

As fear grows in response to the escalating hate crimes and discrimination, Trumps presidency signals an impending public health crisis for Muslims, said Bob Fullilove, professor and associate dean for community and minority affairs at Columbia University.

Decades of research on minority communities has documented how stress associated with stigma, intimidation and discrimination is detrimental to physical and mental health. These health effects are especially concerning for Muslims given Trump won the elections on a platform of Islamophobia.

According to research, Islamophobia is associated with poor psychological outcomes among Muslims. A study assessing discrimination among Arab Americans in Detroit post-9/11 found discrimination increased psychological distress, reduced levels of happiness and worsened overall health for Muslims.

Islamophobia can also adversely affect physical health. Research on Iraqi refugees living in the US after 9/11 found that race-related stressors were correlated with neurological, respiratory, digestive and blood disorders.

Health is expected to further deteriorate if Trump follows through on his proposed Muslim registry. Prejudicial surveillance of Muslim Americans has been found to increase negative mental health outcomes, particularly subclinical paranoia and anxiety.

Constant stress, such as from religiously biased surveillance, can cause health to deteriorate prematurely, a phenomenon known as the weathering effect, said Merlin Chowkwanyun, assistant professor of sociomedical sciences at Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health.

To be constantly worried that you might have to register, put your name in a database or that some sort of connotation is going to be ascribed to you based on name and look is going to cause some wear and tear [on your body], Chowkwanyun said.

Further studies found that both Muslim patients and providers face religious discrimination within the healthcare system. As the Trump administration continues to target and stigmatize Muslims, it will undoubtedly negatively affect how these communities interact with the healthcare system and providers.

People are afraid to go to a clinic, a doctors appointment, an emergency room because somehow their identity will be questioned, their immigration status will be held up for some sort of interrogation, Fullilove said. All things that will keep people away from accessing the services we know to be enjoyable to health.

In addition, stigma surrounding mental health continues to be a significant barrier to accessing services among many Muslim and immigrant communities. And many clinicians may not be adequately equipped to treat mental illness arising from Islamophobia.

Most psychologists and psychiatrists are trained in a very kind of narrow clinical way to think about a diagnostic category and whats necessary to alleviate them, but much less about social context and how it can impact mental health, said Chowkwanyun.

If Trump follows through on his promises to repeal or reform the Affordable Care Act (ACA), these health effects will be further compounded. The ACA was a revolutionary public health act that allowed millions of people who never had health insurance before to access preventive care. Removing public health-friendly provisions will make it difficult for medical professionals to implement the necessary interventions, programs and policies to improve population health.

This is part of what I see as the crisis, Fullilove said. This is the moment when we should be sending out messages that we understand the nature of the crisis we are all in. That we are committed to maintaining the principles of a democratic society, that we stand with people in their fight for dignity and human rights. Those are the kinds of conditions that promote public health at its best.

Read more: https://www.theguardian.com/world/2016/nov/30/donald-trump-muslims-public-health-crisis

Fighting around Mosul leaves majority in Isis-held city without water

Key water pipeline hit as UN warns of siege-like situation in Iraqs second largest city where food supplies are running low

Fighting around Mosul has cut off water supplies for about 650,000 people in the Islamic State stronghold, as the UN warned that a siege-like situation was developing with food stocks running low after weeks of clashes.

A broad coalition of anti-Isis troops is closing in on Iraqs second largest city, but progress is slow in urban areas because militants have dug in and are hiding among up to a million civilians, using them as human shields.

A key water pipeline was hit in fighting on Tuesday, local officials said. The maintenance team cannot reach the pipeline because it lies in an area being fought over, Hussam al-Abar, a member of the local council, told Reuters. We are facing a humanitarian catastrophe.

Iraqs prime minister, Haider al-Abadi, said Mosul was completely surrounded and that the speed of the advance had been faster than he expected.

Giving an optimistic forecast for a battle that has been raging for six weeks and most observers expect to last into next year, Abadi claimed Isis morale was fading and that the US president-elect, Donald Trump, had promised extra support for his government.

In my telephone call with President-elect Trump, he assured me that the US support will not only continue, but it is going to be increased, he told Associated Press.

Yet poor families in Mosul are already struggling to feed themselves as the battle intensifies, and others are hoarding and hiding food, a top UN envoy warned.

Key informants are telling us that poor families are struggling to put sufficient food on their tables, Lise Grande, UN humanitarian coordinator in Iraq, told Reuters. This is very worrying.

The fighting has disrupted both markets and supply lines, making food hard to come by and pushing up prices. Costs soared after militia fighters last week severed the route into Syria, the last reliable supply line into the Iraqi centre of Isiss self-styled caliphate.

In a worst case, we envision that families who are already in trouble in Mosul will find themselves in even more acute need. Grande said. The longer it takes to liberate Mosul, the harder conditions become for families.

Isis are also worried about food costs, and on Sunday militants arrested about 30 shop owners accused of price gouging, to try to suppress discontent, witnesses told Reuters.

The group has tried to prevent civilians leaving areas under its control, herding thousands deeper into Mosul to serve as human shields while government and other forces advanced.

Read more: https://www.theguardian.com/world/2016/nov/29/fighting-around-mosul-isis-city-without-water-pipe-line-hit-siege-iraq

Haiti: violent protests erupt over presidential election result

Early results give win to political newcomer Jovenel Mose, a banana exporter, as losing candidates vow to fight result amid low turnout and irregularities

Violent protests have erupted in Haiti as losing candidates rejected the preliminary results of an election that indicated political newcomer Jovenel Mose would be the next president.

Mose, a banana exporter who ran for former president Michel Martellys Bald Heads party, won with 55.67% of votes cast in the 20 November election, the electoral council said on Monday. The result avoids a second round run-off next year.

Police used teargas on protesters in the La Saline neighborhood, a stronghold of Fanmi Lavalas, the leftist party of former president Jean-Bertrand Aristide. It called the results an electoral coup.

A Reuters witness heard gunshots in the city.

The US embassy also issued reports of demonstrations, gunshots and burning tires in downtown Port-au-Prince and Malpasse, a town close to the border with the Dominican Republic.

A spokesman for the Haitian national police said it was responding to protests in La Saline but could not confirm whether protests in Malpasse had taken place.

Jovenel
Jovenel Mose, who won the presidential election with 55.67% of the vote. Photograph: Hector Retamal/AFP/Getty Images

Mose, the frontrunner in a scrapped election last year, received a majority of votes, meaning there is no need for a second round.

We salute those who voted for me and those who did not vote for me, Mose said. We are going to use the people, the sun, the land and water to develop the country.

In the upscale suburb of Ptionville, residents danced and cheered the result.

Jude Clestin, a mechanical engineer who had led a government construction firm, came in second. He received just under a fifth of the vote.

Mose Jean-Charles, a leftist senator, netted 11%, while Maryse Narcisse, running for Aristides Fanmi Lavalas party, won around 9%, the preliminary results showed.

However, turnout was low and 10% of sheets tallying votes were thrown out because of irregularities. In a country of 10 million people, Jovenel Mose received just 600,000 votes.

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A police officer removes a tire set fire by supporters of presidential candidate Maryse Narcisse. Photograph: Dieu Nalio Chery/AP

Three people on the nine-member electoral council did not sign the report declaring Mose the winner, although the councils president did not say who had abstained.

Those elements fueled a universal condemnation of the results from the losing candidates, who have 72 hours to contest before the final results are released on 29 December.

We reject the results because they are invalid votes that have been counted, said Michel Andr, a lawyer for second-place finisher Clestin. Jude Clestin will challenge the results.

Mose Jean-Charles also said on Tuesday that he would fight the results. The outcome of the election is the result of a conspiracy by the economic oligarchy and sectors of the international community, he said.

Read more: https://www.theguardian.com/world/2016/nov/29/haiti-presidential-election-result-protest-jovenel-moise